About Air Pollution

Over 90% of citizens in the Region are exposed to annual levels of outdoor fine particulate matter that are above WHO’s air quality guidelines according to a study of deaths and diseases in the European region from the WHO Regional Office for Europe and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) published in April 2015.

Girl with inhaler1

As Air Pollution in London (and other Cities) is currently breaching EU legal limits it is important to look more closely at the role of the EU for Air Quality. The EU has legislation, both for the causes of Air Pollution, such as Transport, Agriculture, buildings and power generation and the resultant pollution levels. For a list of various EU “Ambient Air Quality” laws click here.

  • Next Green Car has a table of all the Euro standards of allowable emission levels from Euro 1 to Euro 6 for both Petrol and Diesel. For instance:

    Euro 6 from Sept 2014: The EU emission regulations for vehicles  “Euro 6 is scheduled to enter into force in January 2014 and will mainly reduce the emissions of NOx from diesel cars further, from 180mg/km to 80mg/km.

    Proposed Euro 6 Diesel level from 2017. In Oct 2015 the EU passed the legislation to bring in Real World Driving Emission (RWED) tests for car emission tests. But, as Air Quality News reported the limits for nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions for diesels would be temporarily raised.  “A new RDE (Real Driving Emissions) test procedure was set out by the EU’s Technical Committee on Motor Vehicles last October with the aim of better reflecting the actual air pollution emissions from cars driving on roads compared to the existing lab-based tests.”

    Transport & Environment reported that the “EU governments have agreed to new limits for nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from diesel cars that are double the ‘Euro 6’ levels agreed back in 2007. They have also delayed the implementation of new limits for all new cars until 2019. From 2021, all new cars will still be allowed to emit 50% more NOx than the Euro 6 limit of 80mg/km. 

    According to Air Quality News again Labour’s MEP “Seb Dance said the RDE proposal does “not go far enough” to address the number of premature deaths from air pollution or to provide certainty for future investment by the car industry, although he conceded it would lead to some improvements on the current test procedure.”

    And “ClientEarth’s air pollution lawyer, Alan Andrews, said: “By allowing this illegal proposal, the European Parliament has aided and abetted the Commission in putting car industry profit above people’s health. “

  • Get the UK Government to include best practice testing when they introduce the revised testing legislation for 2017.

    Also ask them to not subsidise per mile cost of diesel motoring with the same per litre tax as for petrol.

  • Greenhouse Gases

    Someone flying from London to New York and back generates roughly the same level of emissions as the average person in the EU does by heating their home for a whole year.”

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) covers [Greenhouse Gas] emissions from all flights from, to and within the European Economic Area (EEA) – the 28 EU Member States, plus Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. The legislation, adopted in 2008, applies to EU and non-EU airlines alike.

    Between 2013-2016 only emissions from flights within the EEA fall under the EU ETS. By 2020 an agreement in October 2013 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Assembly intended to develop a global market-based mechanism addressing international aviation emissions by 2016.

    The European Commission has launched a 12-week consultation to collect experiences, suggestions and opinions related to international and EU policies tackling climate change impacts from international aviation emissions through market-based measures. The consultation seeks input on questions concerning the policy options currently being developed at the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and in relation to the EU emissions trading system (EU ETS). To 30th May 2016

    Pollutants

    No legislation has been discovered for pollutants from planes in the sky.

Emissions from Agriculture - Air Pollutants

According to The Guardian in Sept 2015 ammonia reacts with fumes from traffic and industry to produce tiny particles and is the largest cause of air pollution deaths in the eastern US, Japan and in Europe. “For London, agriculture is the main source,” said Lelieveld. Across the UK, 48% of the premature deaths were ultimately the result of agricultural pollution. “A fifth of all global deaths resulted from these emissions, which come mainly from cattle, chickens and pigs and from the over-use of fertiliser.”

In October 2015 there was an EU proposal for legally binding curbs on emissions of ammonia, methane and particulates from the agricultural sector. Seb Dance MEP, Labour’s European spokesman on environment, and the Socialists and Democrats Group’s lead negotiator on the National Emissions Ceilings Directive, said: “More than a third of the UK’s air pollution is blown over the Channel, so a European-wide agreement is crucial…. “We need ambitious and binding limits on these toxic emissions to force governments across Europe to properly address what is now a public health crisis.”

European Environmental Bureau (EEB) is a research group and its scenario  estimates that 52 people a day would die in the UK unless more ambitious limits were passed. The UK government paper “argues that methane emission curbs are already covered by other EU legislation – although no state is bound by this – and that a proposed ceiling for ammonia use is not “realistic and deliverable”.

However in July 2016 Greens-efa reported that the revision of the National Emission Ceilings Directive up until 2030 had been finalised between the European Parliament and the Council: “The big farming lobby successfully lobbied for far weaker limits on ammonia and succeeded in excluding methane entirely from the scope of the law...”

EMISSION STANDARDS FOR LARGE COMBUSTION PLANTS (AIR POLLUTION)

According to Sourcewatch the European Union Large Combustion Plant Directive sets emission standards for member countries for nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and particulates from all power stations with an installed capacity greater than 50 megawatts. Under the directive legislation power stations that don’t meet the specified emission standards must either retrofit appropriate pollution control equipment or close down. Under the directive, plants that ‘opt out’ of meeting the new standards can operate for a maximum of 20,000 hours after January 2008 and, at the latest, must be shut down by 2015.

ON RESULTANT LEVELS OF POLLUTION

The EU mandates Air Quality standards across member Countries “The Commission has adopted a Clean Air Policy Package in December 2013, consisting of A new Clean Air Programme for Europe with new air quality objectives for the period up to 2030, a revised National Emission Ceilings Directive with stricter national emission ceilings for the six main pollutants, and a proposal for a new Directive to reduce pollution from medium-sized combustion installations.”

Directive 2008/50/EC on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe covers at Article 5  1.  “sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter (PM10and PM2,5), lead, benzene and carbon monoxide.”

 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of persistent organic compounds, some of which are toxic and/or possible or proven human carcinogens; they are produced via incomplete combustion of carbon containing fuels from industrial, commercial, vehicular and residential sources. 2004/107/EC covers these and arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel.

The Pollutants in Air Quality Directive 2008 and EU Air Quality Standards details the limits per pollutant at a measuring site – for instance, over a year. Limits include:
NO2 at 40µg/m3
PM10 
 at 40µg/m3
PM2.5 
at 25 µg/m3.

However more and more measurements show that the UK is regularly exceeding these legal limits. In Feb 2014 the European Commission took action against the UK (Defra) for persistent air pollution problems. Since then Client Earth has also taken action against Defra and the UK major cities.